Collaborative Work with Kazimierz Dabrowski


Dąbrowski, K. (1968). Le milieu psychique interne. [The inner psychic milieu.] Annales Médico-Psychologiques, 126(2), 457-485.

Dąbrowski, K., & Piechowski, M. M. (1969).  Les émotions supérieures et l'objectivité d'évaluation. [Higher emotions and the objectivity of valuation.] Annales Médico-Psychologiques, 127(2), 589-613.

Dąbrowski, K. (With Kawczak, A., & Piechowski, M. M.). (1970). Mental growth through positive disintegration. London: Gryf.

Dąbrowski, K. (with Kawczak, A., & Piechowski, M. M.). (1972). La croissance mentale par desintegration positive. [Mental growth through positive disintegration.] Quebec, Canada: Les Editions Saint-Yves.

Dąbrowski, K., & Piechowski, M. M. (with King, M., & Amend, D. R.) (1972). Multilevelness of emotional and instinctive functions. Volume 2: Types and levels of development. Edmonton, AB: University of Alberta. 

Dąbrowski, K. (with Piechowski, M. M.). (1974) Multilevelness of emotional and instinctive functions. Volume 1: Theory and description of levels of behavior. Edmonton, AB: University of Alberta.

 Dąbrowski, K. (with Piechowski, M. M.). (1977). Theory of levels of emotional development: Vol. 1. Multilevelness and positive disintegration. Oceanside, NY: Dabor Science. 

 Dąbrowski, K., & Piechowski, M. M. (1977). Theory of levels of emotional development: Vol. 2. From primary integration to self-actualization. Oceanside, NY: Dabor Science. 

Application of Dabrowski's Theory in Gifted Education

Articles and chapters

Piechowski, M. M. (1979). Developmental potential. In N. Colangelo & R. T. Zaffrann (Eds.), New voices in counseling the gifted (pp. 25-57). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.

Piechowski, M. M., & Colangelo, N. (1984). Developmental potential of the gifted. Gifted Child Quarterly, 28(2), 80-88.

Piechowski, M. M. (1986). The concept of developmental potential. Roeper Review, 8(3), 190-197.

Piechowski, M. M. (1989). Developmental potential and the growth of the self. In J. VanTassel-Baska & P. Olszewski-Kubilius (Eds.), Patterns of influence on gifted learners: The home, the school, and the self (pp. 87-101). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Piechowski, M. M. (2009). The inner world of the young and bright. In D. Ambrose & T. Cross (Eds.), Morality, ethics, and gifted minds, (pp. 177-194). New York, NY: Springer US.

Piechowski, M. M. (2013). A bird who can soar: Overexcitabilities in the gifted. In C. Neville, M.M. Piechowski & S.S. Tolan (Eds.), Off the charts: Asynchrony and the gifted child (pp. 99-122). Unionville, NY: Royal Fireworks Press.

Battaglia, M. M. K., Mendaglio, S., & Piechowski, M. M. (2014). Kazimierz Dabrowski: A life of positive maladjustment. In A. Robinson & J. L. Jolly (Eds.). A century of contributions to gifted education: Illuminating lives (pp. 181–198). New York, NY: Routledge.

Piechowski, M. M. (2015) ,,Jak ptak, wysokim lotem": Wzmożone pobudliwości psychiczne u osób zdolnych. Psychologia Wychowawcza, NR 8, 122-137. [This is a translation of "A Bird Who Can Soar."]


Piechowski, M. M. (2006). Mellow Out, They Say. If I Only Could: Intensities and Sensitivities of the Young and Bright. Madison, WI: Yunasa Books.

Piechowski, M. M. (2014). Mellow Out, They Say. If I Only Could: Intensities and Sensitivities of the Young and Bright (2nd Ed.) Unionville, NY: Royal Fireworks Press.

Daniels, S., & Piechowski, M. M. (Eds.) (2009). Living with intensity: Understanding the excitability, sensitivity, and emotional development of gifted children, adolescents, and adults. Scottsdale, AZ: Gifted Potential Press.

Neville, C. S., Piechowski, M. M., & Tolan, S. S. (Eds.) (2013). Off the charts: Asynchrony and the gifted child. Unionville, NY: Royal Fireworks Press.

Case Studies

Piechowski, M. M. (1978). Self-actualization as a developmental structure: A profile of Antoine de Saint-Exupéry. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 97, 181-242.

Piechowski, M. M., & Tyska, C. (1982). Self-actualization profile of Eleanor Roosevelt. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 105, 95-153.

Piechowski, M. M. (1990). Inner growth and transformation in the life of Eleanor Roosevelt. Advanced Development, 2, 25-53.

Brennan, T. P., & Piechowski, M. M. (1991). A developmental framework for self-actualization: Evidence from case studies. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 31, 43-64.

Piechowski, M. M. (1992). Etty Hillesum: The thinking heart of the barracks. Advanced Development, 4, 105-118.

Piechowski, M. M. (1992). Giftedness for all seasons: Inner peace in time of war. In N. Colangelo, S. G. Assouline, & D. L. Ambroson (Eds.) Talent Development. Proceedings of the Henry B. and Jocelyn Wallace National Research Symposium on Talent Development (pp. 180–203). Unionville, NY: Trillium Press.

Piechowski, M. M. (1993). Is inner transformation a creative process? Creativity Research Journal, 6(1-2), 89-98.

Piechowski, M. M. (2009). Peace Pilgrim, exemplar of level V. Roeper Review, 31(2), 103-112.

Piechowski, M. M. (2018, July). Lives of positive disintegration. Paper presented at the 13th International Dabrowski Congress, Naperville, IL.

Clinical Application of TPD


Jackson, P. S., Moyle, V. F., & Piechowski, M. M. (2009). Emotional life and psychotherapy of the gifted in light of Dąbrowski’s theory. In L.V. Shavinina (Ed.), International handbook on giftedness (pp. 437-465). Netherlands: Springer.

Daniels, S., & Piechowski, M. M. (2010). When intensity goes to school: Overexcitability, creativity, and the gifted child. In R. A. Beghetto, & J. C. Kaufman (Eds.) Nurturing creativity in the classroom. (pp. 313–328). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Probst, B., & Piechowski M. M. (2012). Overexcitabilities and temperament. In Cross, T. L. & Cross, J. R. (Eds.). The Handbook for Counselors Serving Students with Gifts and Talents, (pp. 53-73). Waco, TX: Prufrock Press.

Conceptual Work


Piechowski, M. M. (1974). Two developmental concepts: Multilevelness and developmental potential. Counseling and Values, 18(2), 86-93.

Piechowski, M. M. (1975). A theoretical and empirical approach to the study of development. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 92, 231-297.

Piechowski, M. M. (1975). Formless forms: The conceptual structure of theories of counseling and psychotherapy. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI.

Lysy, K. Z. & Piechowski, M. M. (1983). Personal growth: An empirical study using Jungian and Dąbrowskian measures. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 108, 267-320.

Grant, B. A., & Piechowski, M. M. (1999) Theories and the good: Toward child-centered gifted education. Gifted Child Quarterly, 43(1), 4-12.

Piechowski, M. M. (2003). From William James to Maslow and Dabrowski: Excitability of character and self-actualization. In D. Ambrose, L. M. Cohen, & A. J. Tannenbaum (Eds.), Creative intelligence: Toward a theoretic integration (pp. 283-322). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

Piechowski, M. M. (2008). Discovering Dabrowski’s theory. In S. Mendaglio (Ed.), Dąbrowski’s theory of positive disintegration (pp. 41-77). Scottsdale, AZ: Great Potential Press.

Piechowski, M. M. (2014). Rethinking Dąbrowski's theory: I. The case against primary integration. Roeper Review, 36(1), 11-17.

Piechowski, M. M. (2014). The roots of Dąbrowski’s theory. Advanced Development, 14, 28-41.

Piechowski, M. M. (2015). A reply to Mendaglio and Tillier. Roeper Review, 37(4), 229-233.

Piechowski, M. M. (2017). Rethinking Dąbrowski’s theory II: It’s not all flat here. Roeper Review, 39(2), 87-95.

Elaboration of Overexcitability

Robert, J. A., & Piechowski, M. M. (1981). Two types of emotional overexcitability: Conserving and transforming. In N. Duda (Ed.) Theory of positive disintegration: Proceedings of the third international conference (pp. 158-178). Miami, FL: Xerox.

Piechowski, M. M., & Cunningham, K. (1985). Patterns of overexcitability in a group of artists. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 19(3), 153-174.

Piechowski, M. M., Silverman, L. K., & Falk, R. F. (1985). Comparison of intellectually and artistically gifted on five dimensions of mental functioning. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 60(2), 539-549.

Piechowski, M. M. (1999). Overexcitabilities. In M. Runco & S. Pritzker (Eds.), Encyclopedia of creativity (pp. 325-334). New York, NY: Academic Press. 

Piechowski, M. M., & Chucker, J. (2011). Overexcitabilities. In M. A. Runco & S. R. Pritzker (Eds.). Encyclopedia of creativity, Vol. 2 (2nd Ed., pp. 202-208). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. 

Emotional and Spiritual Giftedness

Piechowski, M. M. (1991). Emotional development and emotional giftedness. In N. Colangelo & G. A. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of gifted education (pp. 285-306). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Piechowski, M. M. (1997). Emotional giftedness: An Expanded View. APEX: The New Zealand Journal of Gifted Education, 10, 37–47.

Piechowski, M. M. (1997). Emotional giftedness: The measure of intrapersonal intelligence. In N. Colangelo & G. A. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of gifted education (2nd ed., pp. 366-381). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Piechowski, M. M. (2000). Childhood experiences and spiritual giftedness. Advanced Development, 9, 65-90.

Piechowski, M. M. (2001). Childhood spirituality. Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 33, 1-15.

Piechowski, M. M. (2003). Emotional and spiritual giftedness. In N. Colangelo & G. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of gifted education (3rd ed., pp. 403-416). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

See also Peace Pilgrim, Exemplar of Level V, 2009. 

Instrument Development

Gage, D. F., Morse, P. A., & Piechowski, M. M. (1981). Measuring levels of emotional development. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 103, 129-152.

Piechowski, M. M., & Miller, N. B. (1995). Assessing developmental potential in gifted children: A comparison of methods. Roeper Review, 17(3), 176-180.

Falk, R. F., Miller, N. B., Piechowski, M. M., & Silverman, L. K. (2016) The overexcitability questionnaire-two (OEQ-II, 2nd ed.). Denver, CO: Institute for the Study of Advanced Development.

Falk, R. F., & Piechowski, M. M. (2014). Criteria for rating the intensity of overexcitabilities (2nd ed.). Denver, CO: Institute for the Study of Advanced Development.

For more on the OEQ-II visit the ISAD/GDC website.

OEQ Research

OEQ-II Research